铁路儿童客票 train tickets for children



Children between 6 and 14 years old who purchase tickets in a real-name-based ticket system are eligible for discount tickets, and those above 14 years old are required to pay full price.


Children who purchase tickets without ID information are eligible for discount tickets when they are taller than 1.2 meters but shorter than 1.5 meters. Children taller than 1.5 meters must pay full price.



长期以来,我国铁路儿童票划分一直是按身高标准(railway system only offers children discounted tickets in accordance with their height)。不过,随着经济社会的发展,单纯以身高作为儿童优惠票的标准难以切实保障儿童旅客享受出行优惠。

从国际上看,大多数国家是根据年龄而不是身高作为儿童优惠政策的标准(offer preferential policies to children based on their age rather than their height)。例如,在俄罗斯和新加坡,7岁以下的儿童可以免费乘坐城市公共交通(urban public transportation)。在日本,6岁以下的儿童可以免费乘坐铁路交通;6-12岁儿童享受半价优惠;12岁以上的旅客必须支付全价(pay full price)。

第四届中国国际进口博览会 the fourth China International Import Expo



The total exhibition area of this year's CIIE will be further expanded to 366,000 square meters. Over 80 percent of Fortune Global 500 and industrial leaders who participated in the fair last year will return for the fourth CIIE.本届进博会总展览面积进一步扩容,达到36.6万平方米。世界500强和行业龙头企业参展回头率超过80%。

从采购商方面看(from the purchasing side),目前,各地采购商报名积极踊跃,共有39个交易团、599个分团到会开展专业采购(39 trading groups and 599 subgroups have been drawn to the event for professional procurement)。报名采购商购买力强,年进口额1亿美元以上的超过1200家(more than 1,200 buyers with an annual import value of over $100 million have been attracted to this year's CIIE)。

本届进博会共有58个国家和3个国际组织参加国家展(a total of 58 countries and three international organizations will take part in the country exhibition),来自127个国家和地区的近3000家参展商亮相企业展(nearly 3,000 companies from 127 countries and regions have confirmed to join the event),国别、企业数均超上届。同时,有15个国家首次在国家展亮相,其中5个国家是首次参与进博会(make their debut at the CIIE)。参展国遍布五大洲,涵盖发达国家、发展中国家和最不发达国家,“一带一路”沿线国家参与踊跃。

数据显示,全球三大拍卖行、三大时尚高端消费品集团、四大粮商、十大汽车集团、十大工业电气企业、十大医疗器械企业、十大化妆品企业等悉数参展,将有大量新品首发(debut large numbers of products)。展台特装比例连续三届提升,达到96%。

在商务部研究院国际市场研究所副所长白明看来,伴随中国对外开放力度不断加大,进博会作为中国对外开放的一个重要窗口,溢出效应不断增强,成为世界各国搭乘中国发展“快车”的桥头堡(as China continues to open up to the outside world, the CIIE, seeing an increasing outflow effect, has become the bridge for countries that want to take the "fast train" of China's development)。各国期望通过进博会抓住中国提供的市场机遇、投资机遇、增长机遇,共享开放红利。

翻译今天是十一月十六号  第1张

业内人士表示,从前三届进博会达成意向成交金额看,预计今年进博会成交额将再创新高(is projected to see a higher volume of transactions this year)。

国家更高科学技术奖 State Preeminent Science and Technology Award


Two scientists, aircraft designer Gu Songfen and nuclear expert Wang Dazhong, won China's top science award for their outstanding contributions to scientific and technological innovation.飞机设计大师顾诵芬和核能科学家王大中因在科技创新中的突出贡献荣获国家更高科学技术奖。

【2020年度国家更高科学技术奖获得者 顾诵芬】

顾诵芬,男,1930年2月出生,江苏苏州人,1951年毕业于上海交通大学航空工程系。现任中国航空工业集团有限公司科技委高级顾问、中国航空研究院名誉院长。1991年当选中国科学院学部委员(院士),1994年当选中国工程院院士。他是中国航空界唯一的两院院士(the only academician of both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering in the national aviation industry)。

顾诵芬是我国著名飞机设计大师(a renowned aircraft designer)、飞机空气动力设计奠基人。他主持了歼教1、初教6、歼8、歼8Ⅱ飞机气动布局设计(he was in charge of the aerodynamic design of the Shenyang JJ-1, the Nanchang CJ-6, and the Shenyang J-8 and J-8-II),奠定了我国亚音速飞机和超音速飞机气动力设计的基石(lay the cornerstone for subsonic and supersonic aircraft design in the country),推动了我国气动力研究、设计基础手段建设发展。

【2020年度国家更高科学技术奖获得者 王大中】

王大中,男,1935年2月出生,河北昌黎人。1958年毕业于清华大学工程物理系。曾任清华大学核能技术研究所所长、清华大学校长(he has served as the director and chief engineer of Tsinghua University's Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, as well as the president of the university)。1993年当选中国科学院院士(an academician at the Chinese Academy of Sciences)。

王大中是国际著名的核能科学家、教育家(an internationally renowned nuclear energy scientist and educator)。他在先进核能技术研发领域几十年耕耘(he has worked in nuclear energy technology for decades),主持研究、设计、建造、运行成功世界上之一座5MW壳式一体化低温核供热堆(5MW Low Temperature Nuclear Heating Reactor);主持研发建成了世界之一座具有固有安全特征的10MW模块式球床高温气冷实验堆(10MW High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor),并积极推动以上两种先进反应堆技术的应用。王大中带领研究团队走出了我国以固有安全为主要特征的先进核能技术的成功之路。

长三角地区 the Yangtze River Delta region



China's Yangtze River Delta region has generally become a strong and active growth engine to the country's economic development, as the region's GDP contribution continued to rally, according to the country's top economic planner.


丛亮介绍说,长三角地区创新策源能力建设不断加强,地区生产总值占全国比重从2018年的24.1%提高到今年前三季度的24.5%(the region's share of overall national GDP had increased from 24.1 percent in 2018 to 24.5 percent during the first three quarters of this year);高水平建设长三角生态绿色一体化发展示范区(demonstration zone of green and integrated ecological development of the Yangtze River Delta),已推出两批八大类73项一体化制度创新(institutional breakthroughs);推进生态优势转变为经济社会发展优势成效显著,数字经济新优势(new strengths for the digital economy)正在为加快动力转换提供重要牵引。

丛亮表示,长三角一体化发展战略实施三年来已取得重大成果(the region has reaped major benefits from its integrated development during the past three years),一体化发展的新局面正在形成(the integrated development of the region is taking shape)。今年6月份,《长三角一体化发展规划“十四五”实施方案》(the plan for the region's integration during the 14th Five-Year Plan period)印发实施。下一步将加大落实力度,脚踏实地把长三角一体化发展的既定目标任务变成实实在在的成果。

中国女航天员首次出舱 the first extravehicular activities (EVAs) in Chinese space history involving a female taikonaut


The event was the third extravehicular mission conducted during the construction of the country's space station and the first by the Shenzhou XIII crew. It also marks the first extravehicular activities (EVAs) in Chinese space history involving a female taikonaut.


北京时间11月7日晚18时51分,航天员翟志刚成功开启天和核心舱节点舱出舱舱门(open the hatch of Tianhe's node cabin),截至20时28分,翟志刚和航天员王亚平身着我国新一代“飞天”舱外航天服(don China-developed new-generation Feitian spacesuits),先后从天和核心舱节点舱成功出舱(be out of China's space station core module Tianhe to start EVAs),中国首位出舱航天员翟志刚时隔13年后再次进行出舱活动(this is the second time Zhai has performed EVAs, having completed China's first spacewalk 13 years ago);王亚平成为中国首位进行出舱活动的女航天员,迈出了中国女性舱外太空行走之一步(Wang's EVAs make her the country's first female astronaut to leave footprints in outer space)。北京时间11月8日1时16分,经过约6.5小时的出舱活动(after 6.5 hours of extravehicular activities),神舟十三号航天员乘组密切协同,圆满完成出舱活动全部既定任务,航天员翟志刚、王亚平安全返回天和核心舱(return to the core module),出舱活动取得圆满成功。

航天员出舱活动期间,天地间大力协同、舱内外密切配合,先后完成了机械臂悬挂装置与转接件安装(mount new components on the station's robotic arm)、舱外典型动作测试等任务,全过程顺利圆满,进一步检验了我国新一代舱外航天服的功能性能(further test the functions of the China-developed new-generation extravehicular spacesuits),检验了航天员与机械臂协同工作的能力(the coordination between the taikonauts and the mechanical arm)及出舱活动相关支持设备的可靠性与安全性(the reliability and safety of supporting equipment related to the EVAs)。

神舟十三号载人飞船于10月16日成功发射,顺利将翟志刚、王亚平、叶光富3名航天员送入太空。神舟十三号乘组将在轨驻留6个月,预计要进行2-3次的出舱行走任务。神舟十三号载人飞行任务是空间站关键技术验证阶段第六次飞行任务,也是该阶段最后一次飞行任务(Shenzhou XIII will be the last mission in the technological verification phase of the Tiangong space station program)。

碳减排支持工具 carbon-reduction supporting tool


The People's Bank of China will provide low-cost loans for financial institutions through the carbon-reduction supporting tool, and will guide those institutions, on the premise of independent decision-making and risk-taking, to provide loans to firms in key carbon-reduction fields. The loan interest rates provided by the financial institutions should be basically in line with the benchmark lending rates, or the loan prime rates.


中国人民银行有关负责人介绍,创设推出碳减排支持工具这一结构性货币政策工具,以稳步有序、精准直达方式,支持清洁能源、节能环保、碳减排技术等重点领域的发展(the creation and launch of such a structural monetary policy tool will support the development of key fields, such as clean energy, energy conservation and environmental protection, in a steady, orderly, targeted and direct manner),并撬动更多社会资金促进碳减排。

据介绍,碳减排支持工具发放对象暂定为全国性金融机构,人民银行通过“先贷后借”的直达机制(adopt "the system for direct funds"),对金融机构向碳减排重点领域内相关企业发放的符合条件的碳减排贷款,按贷款本金的60%提供资金支持,利率为1.75%(provide 60 percent of the loan principal made by financial institutions for carbon-emission cuts, with a one-year lending rate of 1.75 percent)。

人民银行有关负责人表示,为保障碳减排支持工具的精准性和直达性,人民银行要求金融机构公开披露发放碳减排贷款的情况以及贷款带动的碳减排数量等信息(the central bank also requires those financial institutions to publicly disclose information on the carbon-reduction loans and the emission cuts financed by such loans),并由第三方专业机构对这些信息进行核实验证(third-party professional institutions will verify such information),接受社会公众监督。

人民银行表示,碳减排支持工具的推出将发挥政策示范效应,引导金融机构和企业更充分地认识绿色转型的重要意义,鼓励社会资金更多投向绿色低碳领域(more social funds could also be mobilized to promote carbon-emission cuts),向企业和公众倡导绿色生产生活方式、循环经济等理念,助力实现碳达峰、碳中和目标。

地下水管理 groundwater management

国务院总理 *** 日前签署国务院令,公布《地下水管理条例》。

The new regulation, which will take effect on Dec 1, has set out specific rules for groundwater in the areas of survey and planning, conservation and protection, over-exploitation treatment, pollution control, and supervision and management.


根据《条例》,县级以上人民 *** 应当组织水行政、自然资源、生态环境等主管部门开展地下水状况调查评价工作(conduct survey and evaluations on groundwater conditions),根据地下水状况调查评价成果,统筹考虑经济社会发展需要、地下水资源状况、污染防治等因素,编制本级地下水保护利用和污染防治等规划(make underground protection and pollution control arrangements)。

实行地下水取水总量控制和水位控制制度(the total amount of groundwater extracted as well as groundwater levels will be placed under control)。明确用水过程的节约用水要求,强化用经济手段调控地下水节约和保护,明确地下水水资源税费的征收原则。除特殊情形外,禁止开采难以更新的地下水(except under special circumstances, groundwater that is not replenished easily should not be exploited)。

规范地下水禁止开采区、限制开采区的划定(the designation of areas where the exploitation of groundwater is prohibited or restricted should be standardized)。除特殊情形外,在禁止开采区内禁止取用地下水,在限制开采区内禁止新增取用地下水并逐步削减地下水取水量。要求各省、自治区、直辖市编制本行政区域地下水超采综合治理方案(make plans for local groundwater over-exploitation treatment),明确治理目标、治理措施、保障措施等内容。

建立地下水污染防治重点区划定制度。强化对污染地下水行为的管控(strengthen the control of activities polluting groundwater),禁止以逃避监管的方式排放水污染物,禁止利用无防渗漏措施的沟渠、坑塘等输送或者贮存含有毒污染物的废水等行为。细化防止生产建设活动污染地下水的制度。细化防止土壤污染导致地下水污染的制度(refine the rules that prevent groundwater pollution caused by soil pollution, production and construction activities)。

技工院校毕业生 graduates from technical schools


In the 2021-2025 period, China plans to keep the number of students at technical schools above 3.6 million and the employment rate for graduates above 97 percent, said the plan. By 2025, China expects to have provided over 20 million vocational training sessions to enterprise employees and key employment groups, as well as training more than 2 million highly-skilled personnel.


《规划》明确,“十四五”期间,我国将持续提升技工院校毕业生待遇,推动落实毕业生享受就业创业、参军入伍等相关政策(works will be done to allow technical school graduates to enjoy relevant policies on employment, entrepreneurship and army recruitment),中级工班、高级工班、预备 *** ( *** )班毕业生分别按照中专、大专、本科学历落实职称评审(the granting of professional titles)、事业单位公开 *** (employment in public institutions)等有关政策。

规划还提出,全面加强学生权益保障(ensure benefits for students in technical schools)。调整改版技工院校毕业证书,为毕业生各项政策待遇落实提供支持。完善学生实习管理制度(improve internship arrangements),积极探索实习生参加工伤保险办法(provide work-related injury insurance for interns),加快发展学生实习实训责任保险和人身意外伤害保险。

技工院校是培养生产和服务一线技术工人的专门学校(technical schools are schools specializing in training frontline workers in the production and service sectors)。人社部数据显示,截至2020年末,全国共有技工院校2423所,在校生395万人(as of the end of 2020, China had 2,423 technical schools, with 3.95 million students enrolled),2020年全年面向社会开展各类职业技能培训超过400万人次。

“零碳”供暖 carbon-free heating


The urban area of Haiyang, Shandong province, has started using heat generated by a nuclear power plant this winter, making it the first Chinese city to have carbon-free heating.


国家电投(State Power Investment Corp)11月9日宣布,2021年—2022年供暖季(heating season)即将到来之际,其“暖核一号”——国家能源核能供热商用示范工程二期450万平方米项目在山东海阳提前6天投运(the commercial nuclear heating project was put into operation six days ahead of schedule),供暖面积覆盖海阳全城区,惠及20万居民。此举使海阳成为全国首个“零碳”供暖城市;同时,海阳居民住宅取暖费每建筑平方米较往年下调一元钱(residential heating fee is lowered by one yuan per square meter)。

国家电投表示,“暖核一号”项目投运后,海阳核电1号机组(Unit 1 of the Haiyang Nuclear Plant)成为世界更大热电联产机组(the world's largest cogeneration unit),替代了当地12台燃煤锅炉(replace 12 coal-fired boilers),每个供暖季预计节约原煤10万吨,减排二氧化碳18万吨(cut carbon dioxide emissions by 180,000 metric tons)、烟尘691吨、氮氧化物1123吨、二氧化硫1188吨,相当于种植阔叶林1000公顷,同时减少向环境排放热量130万吉焦,有效改善区域供暖季大气环境和海洋生态环境。


核能供热的主要原理是,从核电机组二回路抽取蒸汽作为热源(此热源没有放射性)(extract nonradioactive steam from the reactors at the nuclear power plant),通过换热站(heat exchange stations)进行多级换热,最后经市政供热管网(municipal pipes),将热量传递至最终用户的城市集中供暖(central heating)方式。热电联产机组(cogeneration unit)是指同时生产电、热能的工艺过程。发电厂既生产电能,又利用汽轮发电机作过功的蒸汽对用户供热,较分别生产电、热能方式更节能。

数据分类分级保护制度 a category- and class-based data protection system

国家网信办近日公布《 *** 数据安全管理条例(征求意见稿)》(以下称为《意见稿》),并向社会公开征求意见。

According to the regulations, the country shall establish a category- and class-based data protection system. The data will be classified as common, important, and core on account of its importance to national security, public interests, as well as the legitimate rights and interests of relevant individuals or organizations, said the draft regulations. Different protection measures based on the classifications will be imposed.


《意见稿》要求,数据处理者应当建立数据安全应急处置机制(data processing entities should set up emergency response mechani *** s),发生数据安全事件(data security incidents)时及时启动应急响应机制,采取措施防止危害扩大,消除安全隐患。

《意见稿》对个人信息保护(personal information protection)进行了具体规范,数据处理者利用生物特征进行个人身份认证的,应当对必要性、安全性进行风险评估,不得将人脸(face)、步态、指纹(fingerprint)、虹膜(iris)、声纹等生物特征作为唯一的个人身份认证方式(exclusive method for personal identification),以强制个人同意收集其个人生物特征信息(coercive collection of personal biometric information)。

数据处理者不得因个人拒绝提供服务必需的个人信息以外的信息,拒绝提供服务或者干扰个人正常使用服务(data processing entities shall not refuse to provide services or hinder normal services to users on the ground of being rejected when collecting personal information that is unnecessary for related services)。

学科类校外培训 curriculum-based academic training


The Ministry of Education has asked local education authorities to differentiate academic tutoring companies from non-academic ones to prevent institutions from conducting curriculum-based training under the guise of non-academic tutoring.


《指南》明确了义务教育阶段校外培训项目分类鉴别依据,即要从培训目的、培训内容、培训方式、评价方式等维度(based on the purpose, content, procedure and evaluation method of the tutoring),对培训项目进行综合考量。

《指南》指出,如符合以下特征,即判定为学科类培训(be classified as academic ones)。

一是培训目的以学科知识与技能培训为导向,主要为提升学科学习成绩服务(aim to improve students' academic knowledge and grades)。二是培训内容主要涉及道德与法治、语文、历史、地理、数学、外语(英语、日语、俄语)、物理、化学、生物等学科学习(academic subjects)内容。三是培训方式重在进行学科知识讲解(curriculum-based knowledge teaching)、听说读写算等学科能力训练,以预习、授课和巩固练习等为主要过程,以教师(包括虚拟者、人工智能等)讲授示范、互动等为主要形式。四是结果评价侧重甄别与选拔,以学生学习成绩、考试结果等作为主要评价依据(evaluate students based on their exam results)。

各地要组建专家组(organize expert teams)或委托专业机构,对无法直接判断的培训项目进行综合研判,得出鉴别意见。鉴别专家组应包括相关学科、课程、教学等方面专家,且相关人员及其直系亲属未在培训机构中任职或 *** 、属于非利益相关方(not involved in the tutoring companies)。鉴别工作不得受外界干扰,不得徇私舞弊,确保结论的真实、客观、公正。

培训机构要进行自我研判、自评自查(conduct self-examination and evaluation),规范开展培训活动,不得出现名不符实的情况,不得隐形变异违规开展学科类培训活动。

北京冬奥会运动员菜单 menu for athelets at the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics


Organizers of the Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games have released a menu of 678 dishes that will be served during the Games to athletes from diverse cultural backgrounds. The menu, approved by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), was designed to meet the different dietary needs of athletes, while also taking religious diversity into consideration, said the organizers.


在餐饮服务上,北京、延庆、张家口三个冬奥村(Olympic Village)的服务标准、时间和内容统一。设置12种餐台,每天约200道菜供各国运动员食用(around 200 dishes will be available for athletes each day),以每8天为一个周期进行轮换。每餐都有一系列素食和 *** 菜式,并提供犹太洁食服务(vegetarian, halal and kosher meals will be available),满足不同口味、不同宗教的特定饮食需求,让运动员充分感受中国的热情好客(Chinese hospitality)。

冬奥会赛时恰逢中国传统春节(the 2022 Winter Olympics coincides with China's Spring Festival),菜单将围绕“中国年味”(elements of the Chinese Lunar New Year),与国际上的节日相结合,增添特色饮食餐品供应,充分展示国家化餐饮服务特色。中国特色菜品(famous local dishes)包括西湖牛肉羹、木须肉、酱爆鸡丁等,结合中国东西南北美食(cuisines from all over China)主题,展示中国饮食文化的丰富性与多样性,有川菜、粤菜、鲁菜、湘菜等,让世界各地运动员充分感受、体验中国美食文化魅力(enable global athletes to fully experience Chinese cuisine)。

冬奥会(冬残奥会)赛时期间,奥运村部餐饮处(the catering service)严格遵守疫情防控要求。在运动员餐厅出入口(the entrance and exit of the restaurant)、取餐流线(the food distribution area)等关键点位,设置防疫用品台,摆放口罩、手套、酒精棉片(alcohol cotton pads)和免洗手消毒剂(hand-washing disinfectants)等消毒用品。进门后,设有智能保温取餐柜,实现人员分流就餐;设有智能引导机器人(guiding robots),提供咨询、引导服务。餐厅使用可降解环保餐具(biodegradable tableware),充分体现绿色办奥(hold a green Olympic Games)的理念。冬残奥会期间在运动员餐厅增设更多的无障碍餐饮服务(barrier-free access),增设可移动座位、设计盲文菜单(braille menus)、对菜签采取大字号进行标识。

媒体签证 visas for journalists




China places great importance on the issue of media and has been doing its utmost to provide assistance, convenience and service to foreign journalists, including American journalists, in their reporting that is conducted in accordance with laws and regulations. In the meantime, we are unequivocally opposed to discriminatory practice on the US side against Chinese media in the US.

经过多轮磋商,近日,双方本着相互尊重、对等互惠的原则达成三项共识:After multiple rounds of consultations, China and the United States have recently reached three consensuses on their visa policies for journalists based on the principles of mutual respect, reciprocity and mutual benefit.

一是双方相互保障在对方国家工作的现任常驻记者在严格遵守防疫政策和领事规定前提下可正常进出对方国家。The two sides agreed to ensure that journalists from either country currently based in the other country can enter and leave that country normally on the premise of strictly observing laws and consular regulations.

二是双方同意为对方国家记者颁发一年多次入境签证。美方承诺将立即启动国内程序解决中国记者签证停留期问题,中方则承诺在美方政策措施到位后,给予驻华美媒记者同等待遇。The two sides also agreed to issue one-year multiple entry visas to journalists from the other country, and the US side pledged to immediately initiate domestic procedures to address the "duration of status" issues for Chinese journalists. The Chinese side promised to give equal treatment to American journalists in China after the US policies enter into force.

三是双方将依法依规为符合申请要求的新任常驻记者对等审批签证。Both parties will approve visas on an equal footing for new journalists who meet application requirements in accordance with laws and regulations.

赵立坚说,这一成果来之不易,符合双方媒体利益,值得珍惜(this achievement was hard-won, meets the interests of both sides, and is worth cherishing)。希望美方信守承诺(honor its words),尽快将有关措施政策落实到位(implement the relevant policies as soon as possible),同中方共同努力,为两国媒体在对方国家工作生活持续创造有利条件(work with China to continue creating favorable working and living conditions for the media of both countries)。

党的二十大代表选举 election of the delegates for the 20th National Congress of the CPC

最近, *** 中央印发了《关于党的二十大代表选举工作的通知》,对二十大代表选举工作作出全面部署。中央组织部近日召开会议,对这项工作作出具体安排。

党的十九届六中全会决定,党的二十大于2022年下半年在北京召开。The Communist Party of China (CPC) will convene its 20th National Congress in Beijing in the second half of 2022, the 19th CPC Central Committee decided at its sixth plenary session earlier this month.

党的二十大,是我们党进入全面建设社会主义现代化国家、向第二个百年奋斗目标进军新征程的重要时刻召开的一次十分重要的代表大会,是党和国家政治生活中的一件大事。The congress comes at an important time when the CPC has embarked on a new journey to build a modern socialist country in all respects and to realize the Second Centenary Goal. It will be a highly important meeting and an event of great political significance for both the Party and the country.

认真做好二十大代表选举工作,是开好大会的重要基础。The election of the delegates will lay an important foundation for the success of this congress.

党中央确定,二十大代表名额共2300名,由全国38个选举单位选举产生(according to the CPC leadership, a total of 2,300 delegates will be elected by 38 electoral units across the country)。做好二十大代表选举工作,要坚持以 *** 新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,坚持以 *** 为根本遵循,坚持党的性质宗旨,坚持和加强党的全面领导,充分发扬党内民主(intra-Party democracy),严格资格条件,严密产生程序,严肃选举纪律,确保选出的二十大代表素质优良、结构合理、分布广泛、党员拥护(ensure that high-caliber delegates are elected, their composition is well structured, and the delegates come from a broad spectrum with the support of other Party members)。

党中央提出,二十大代表应是 *** 员中的优秀分子(excellent Party members)。要严把人选政治关,坚持把政治标准放在首位(political standards must be prioritized when selecting candidates),突出考察人选的理想信念、政治品格和道德修养(the candidates' commitment to ideals and convictions should be considered first, as well as their political character and moral traits),着重了解人选政治判断力、政治领悟力、政治执行力,增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”等方面的表现情况,对政治上不合格的一票否决。

要进一步优化代表结构(improve the composition of delegates),既要有各级党员领导干部(Party officials at each level),又要有生产和工作之一线的党员(those from the front line of production and work),保证生产和工作之一线代表比例,注重推荐工人、农民和专业技术人员党员中的先进模范人物(exemplary workers, farmers and professionals)作为代表人选;女党员和少数民族党员代表(female delegates and those from ethnic minority groups)应占一定比例。要有经济、科技、国防、政法、教育、宣传、文化、卫生、体育和社会管理等各方面的代表。

党中央要求,二十大代表的选举产生,采取自下而上、上下结合、反复酝酿、逐级遴选的办法进行。要深入开展宣传教育,广泛发动基层党组织和党员积极参与代表人选的推荐提名(grassroots Party members and organizations should be extensively mobilized to take part in the nomination of candidates),根据多数党组织和党员的意见,逐级遴选择优。

二十大代表选举工作从现在开始,到明年6月底前结束。The election will run from now on until the end of June 2022, according to the statement.

代办级 the chargé d’affaires level


11月18日,立陶宛不顾中方严正 *** 和反复交涉,允许台湾当局设立“驻立陶宛台湾代表处”。此举公然在国际上制造“ *** ”,背弃立方在两国建交公报中所作政治承诺,损害中国 *** 和领土完整,粗 *** 涉中国内政。中方对此表示强烈不满和严正 *** ,决定将中立两国外交关系降为代办级。On November 18, Lithuania, in disregard of China’s strong protest and repeated representations, allowed the Taiwan authorities to set up a “Taiwanese Representative Office in Lithuania”. This act openly creates the false impression of “one China, one Taiwan” in the world, renounces the political commitment made by Lithuania in the communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, undermines China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and grossly interferes in China’s internal affairs. The Chinese side expresses its strong indignation and protest against this move, and decides to downgrade its diplomatic relations with Lithuania to the chargé d’affaires level.


据外交部网站“礼宾知识”介绍,外交代表机关(body of diplomatic representatives)是一国派驻另一国的官方代表机构。在达成建交协议后,建交双方在对方首都各自设立与外交代表等级相应的外交代表机关。外交代表机关通常分为三级:以大使(ambassador)为馆长的称大使馆(embassy)(以高级专员为馆长的称高级专员公署);以公使为馆长的称公使馆(legation);以代办为馆长的称代办处(chargé d’affaire)。

世界上只有一个中国,中华人民共和国 *** 是代表全中国的唯一合法 *** 。一个中国原则是国际社会普遍共识和公认的国际关系准则,是中国同立陶宛发展双边关系的政治基础。中国 *** 从维护中立关系的善意出发,一再警示立方不要再做背信弃义的事情。遗憾的是,立陶宛无视中国 *** 的严正立场,罔顾双边关系大局,罔顾国际关系基本准则,执意允许以台湾名义在立陶宛设立“代表处”,在国际上制造恶劣先例。鉴于中立赖以建立大使级外交关系的政治基础遭到立方破坏,中国 *** 为了维护自己的 *** 和国际关系基本准则,不得不将中立两国外交关系降为代办级。立陶宛 *** 必须承担由此产生的一切后果。我们敦促立方立即纠正错误,不要低估中国人民捍卫国家 *** 和领土完整的坚强决心、坚定意志、强大能力。

There is only one China in the world and the government of the People’s Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China. The one-China principle is an overwhelming consensus of the international community, a widely recognized norm governing international relations, and the political foundation for China and Lithuania to develop bilateral ties. The Chinese government has, out of goodwill to preserve China-Lithuania ties, repeatedly warned Lithuania against acting in bad faith. Regrettably, Lithuania has chosen to ignore China’s solemn position and to disregard the broader interests of bilateral ties and the basic norms governing international relations. It has allowed the establishment in Lithuania of the “Representative Office” bearing the name of Taiwan, thus creating an egregious precedent in the world. Given the fact that the political foundation for an ambassadorial-level diplomatic relationship has been damaged by Lithuania, the Chinese government, out of the need to safeguard national sovereignty and basic norms governing international relations, has no choice but to downgrade its diplomatic relations with Lithuania to the chargé d’affaires level. The Lithuanian government must bear all the ensuing consequences. We urge the Lithuanian side to immediately put right its mistake and not to underestimate the Chinese people’s strong resolve, will and capability to defend national sovereignty and territorial integrity.

我们也正告台湾方面,台湾从来不是一个国家。无论“ *** ”势力如何歪曲事实、颠倒黑白,都改变不了大陆和台湾同属一个中国的历史事实。企图挟洋自重,搞政治操弄,最终必将是死路一条。

We also have this stern warning for the Taiwan authorities: Taiwan is never a country. No matter how “Taiwan independence” forces try to misrepresent facts and confound black and white, the historical fact that the mainland and Taiwan belong to one and the same China cannot be changed. Attempts to seek foreign support for political manipulation will prove a dead end.

中美混双 Chinese and US mixed double


Chinese and US players will team up in the mixed doubles competition at the 2021 Houston World Table Tennis Championships, said the International Table Tennis Federation.Chinese player Lin Gaoyuan will partner with US player Lily Zhang, and US player Kanak Jha will partner with Chinese player Wang Manyu.国际乒联宣布,中美选手将跨国配对出战2021年休斯敦世乒赛混双比赛。中国选手林高远将搭档美国选手张安,美国选手卡纳克将搭档中国选手王曼昱。


I’m really happy to be partnering with Lily Zhang for the Mixed Doubles event. She’s the top table tennis player in the US, our goal is to come out on top for this event. The biggest advantage about pairing with her is that she speaks Mandarin. I hope we can get into the groove soon, develop good chemistry and work hard towards a great performance. And I hope fans from both China and the US will cheer on the China-US Mixed Doubles pairs.很高兴能够与张安配对参加世乒赛的混双比赛,张安是美国队一号, 我们的目标是争之一。我们配合更大的优势是她也会说中文,希望我们能够迅速进入状态,配合默契,通过努力取得好的成绩。希望两支球队的球迷都能为我们这两对混双组合加油。


It’s going to be amazing; it is so cool to be able to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Ping-Pong Diplomacy here in the US where the World championships will be held for the first time. I think it will be a historical moment, and I am really glad that our two countries are able to work together through sport. I am very excited to play with Lin Gaoyuan, it’s so cool to pair with a Chinese national team player. They’re the best in the world, so I will do my best and hopefully we can work well together and get a good result.世乒赛首次在美国举行,同时庆祝“乒乓外交”50周年,真是太棒了!我认为这将是一个历史性的时刻,我很高兴我们两国能够通过体育进行良好的合作。能和林高远一起打球我很兴奋,和中国国家队球员搭档真是太棒了。他们是世界上最棒的,所以我会尽我所能,希望我们能很好地合作并取得好成绩。


Once again, we are all witnessing the unique power of sport and how table tennis can create dialogues and foster mutual understanding. This will inspire us to deliver an extraordinary and historical Championships and to encourage the dreams, hopes and aspirations of not only the entire table tennis community but also the next generation worldwide.我们要在休斯敦再次见证体育独特的力量,以及乒乓球在创建对话、促进相互理解方面发挥的作用。这将激励我们展示一场精彩又深具历史意义的世乒赛,激发整个乒乓球界乃至下一代追求梦想、希望和抱负。


A few days ago, when the Chinese team arrived in Houston, I was deeply moved by the efforts ITTF, USA Table Tennis and Houston Sports Authority put into organizing a sports event during a pandemic. We have been thinking about how we can build on the China-US friendship kickstarted by our predecessors 50 years ago, and further enhance this relationship through sports events, sports activities and community events. On this basis, the CTTA alongside USA Table Tennis proposed to ITTF to have Chinese and American players paired up for Mixed Doubles – so that these athletes, who are friends with each other, can work together in the competition; so that fans from both countries can cheer them on, opening a new chapter of Ping-Pong Diplomacy in this new era.几天之前,当中国队到达休斯敦,看到疫情期间国际乒联、美国乒协、休斯敦体育局在组织赛事方面的努力,备受感动。我们一直在思考,“乒乓外交”50年后的今天,我们如何在前辈夯实的中美友谊的基础上,再深一步地通过体育赛事、体育活动、民间活动来增进两国的友谊。基于此,中国乒协联合美国乒协向国际乒联提出混双中美跨国配对的建议,让这几位原本就是朋友的运动员并肩上场,两个国家的球迷们共同为他们欢呼和呐喊,奏响新时期“乒乓外交”新篇章。


“乒乓外交”(Ping-Pong Diplomacy)始于1971年在日本名古屋举行的第31届世界乒乓球锦标赛(World Table Tennis Championships)期间美国选手科恩误上了中国队的大巴车,该事件促成了中华人民共和国与美国两国乒乓球队互访的一系列事件(the series of history-making reciprocal visits by the US and Chinese national table tennis teams),从此结束了中美两国20多年来人员交往隔绝的局面。中美两国乒乓球队的友好往来,不仅推动了中美两国关系正常化(normalizing the countries' strained relations)的进程,也加速了新中国走向世界的步伐。


China's Ma Long and Germany's Timo Boll played doubles together at the Qoros 2015 World Table Tennis Championships held in Suzhou, China.中国选手马龙搭档德国选手波尔参加苏州世乒赛的男子双打比赛。

Xu Xin paired with Yang Hae-un of South Korea to win the World Championships mixed doubles title in 2015.许昕和韩国选手梁夏银搭档,拿到了2015年苏州世乒赛的混双冠军。


航天功勋奖章 Space Service Medal

*** 中央、国务院、中央军委11月23日发布关于给聂海胜、刘伯明、汤洪波颁发航天功勋奖章的决定。

The Communist Party of China Central Committee, the State Council and the Central Military Commission issued a joint statement saying that the top authorities had conferred a First-class Space Service Medal on Nie Haisheng, a Second-class Space Service Medal on Liu Boming and a Third-class Space Service Medal on Tang Hongbo. Tang was also named a "Heroic Astronaut", an honorary title Nie and Liu have already received. *** 中央、国务院、中央军委决定,给聂海胜同志颁发“一级航天功勋奖章”,给刘伯明同志颁发“二级航天功勋奖章”,授予汤洪波同志“英雄航天员”荣誉称号并颁发“三级航天功勋奖章”。聂海胜和刘伯明此前已获得“英雄航天员”荣誉称号。



陆军、空军(Army and Air Force):

上将(General), 中将(Lieutenant General), 少将(Major General), 大校(Senior Colonel), 上校(Colonel),中校(Lieutenant Colonel), 少校(Major), 上尉(Captain), 中尉(Lieutenant), 少尉(Second Lieutenant)


上将(Admiral), 中将(Vice-Admiral), 少将(Rear Admiral), 大校(Senior Captain), 上校(Captain), 中校(Commander), 少校(Lieutenant Commander), 上尉(Lieutenant), 中尉(Lieutenant Junior Grade), 少尉(Ensign)

2021年6月17日,我国航天员聂海胜、刘伯明、汤洪波驾乘神舟十二号载人飞船成功进入太空,顺利完成与天和核心舱自主快速交会对接(fast autonomous rendezvous and docking with the Tianhe core module),并开展了一系列创新性、突破性科学试验和空间应用任务,在轨驻留3个月,于9月17日顺利返回。

The crew made two spacewalks, using a large robotic arm and other equipment to install and adjust devices outside the space station Tiangong.



The astronauts are outstanding representatives of Chinese science and technology professionals, space industry workers and PLA service members, who used their wisdom and devotion to make Shenzhou XII a complete success.神舟十二号载人飞行任务圆满成功,凝聚着广大科技工作者、航天员、干部职工、 *** 指战员的智慧和心血。三位航天员是其中的杰出代表。


母乳喂养 breastfeeding


China will promote breastfeeding over the next five years by improving hospitals' consultancy services, public support facilities and protecting women's working rights during lactation.未来五年,我国将通过强化医院咨询服务、公共设施建设以及保护哺乳期女职工权益等措施促进母乳喂养。


近几年,不少地方 *** 陆续出台了有关女职工“五期”劳动保护的政策法规,“五期”指的是女职工的经期(menstrual period)、孕期(pregnancy)、产期(obstetrical period)、哺乳期(lactation)和更年期(menopause)。


Companies and administrative units will be required to ensure their female workers have access to maternity leave, and make reasonable schedules for mothers who are breastfeeding.用人单位要确保女职工享受产假,合理安排哺乳期女职工的哺乳时间。


母亲在生产后按规定享受的一段假期是maternity/maternal leave(产假),如果是“带薪产假”则为paid maternity leave。Maternity和maternal这两个词都与mother这个词相关,而拉丁语中的“妈妈”一词为mater,正是maternity和maternal的词根。我们都知道英语中表达亲戚关系的词都是uncle、aunt这样,而不是像中文那样“叔叔”、“舅舅”、“姑姑”、“阿姨”分得很清楚,如果在表达的时候想要区分,可以在前面加上maternal或者paternal,比如:my maternal aunt就是“我姨”,而my paternal aunt则是“我姑”。

Mothers should have one hour for breastfeeding during work hours, which will be equivalent to an hour of work. Also, reducing salary or benefits, or laying off female workers due to breastfeeding is not allowed.


Buildings that are over 10,000 square meters and frequented by children, traffic hubs, attractions and shopping malls with more than 10,000 daily visitors should be equipped with individual rooms for mothers.


Supervision of baby products and medical units will also be enhanced. For example, any advertisement for baby dairy products, drinks or food claiming that it can replace breast milk is prohibited.


自动驾驶出行服务商业化试点 test run of robotaxi paid service


Tech giant Baidu Inc and self-driving startup Pony.ai are the first pair of enterprises granted permission to offer paid services and provide up to 100 self-driving vehicles for commercial pilot services within an area of 60 square kilometers in the Beijing Economic and Technological Development Zone.科技巨头百度和自动驾驶初创企业小马智行成为首批获许开展商业化试点服务的企业,现阶段将在北京经开区60平方公里范围,投入不超过100辆自动驾驶车辆开展商业化试点服务。


“自动驾驶车辆”(autonomous/self-driving/driverless vehicle),又称无人驾驶汽车或电脑驾驶汽车,是通过电脑系统操控实现无人驾驶的智能汽车。自动驾驶汽车依靠人工智能(artificial intelligence)、视觉计算(visual computing)、雷达(radar)、监控装置(monitoring devices)和全球定位系统(GPS)协同合作,让电脑可以在没有任何人类主动的操作下,自动安全地操作机动车辆。提供出行服务的自动驾驶车辆则可以简称为robotaxi。

Autonomous driving service providers can adopt market-based pricing mechani *** s and charge for their services after clarifying fee policies and payment methods to passengers.


据央视新闻报道,当前试点服务的上下车环节需由乘客走到固定上下车站点(pick-up and drop-off points),而非自己随意设置。试点服务的整体定价,参考了专车和网约车的定价机制(pricing is similar to the level of premium ride-hailing services),并且初期优惠力度会非常大。

截至目前,北京自动驾驶累计安全测试里程接近300万公里。商业化试点(pilot run)是自动驾驶应用场景落地(commercial deployment of autonomous driving service)的最终环节,进而形成产业闭环。



Potential service providers should fully comply with and implement laws and regulations concerning autonomous driving and step up efforts to ensure security of personal information and online data.申请主体全面遵守和落实国家相关法律法规,加强对个人信息和 *** 数据安全保护;

Service providers should set up a fully functional internet security system, carrying out effective management of internet service platforms and dealing with security incidents.

企业建立完整的 *** 安全防护体系,对互联网服务平台进行持续有效的 *** 安全管理,有效应对 *** 安全事件。


全球咨询机构IHS Markit发布的一份报告指出:

翻译今天是十一月十六号  第2张

The market size of China's self-driving taxi services is expected to surpass 1.3 trillion yuan by 2030, accounting for 60 percent of the country's ride-hailing market by then.到2030年,中国自动驾驶出行服务的市场规模将达到1.3万亿元,占全国出行市场的60%。

下一步,北京市高级别自动驾驶示范区(Beijing High-level Automated Driving Demonstration Area)将适时逐步扩大商业化试点路段或区域范围(expand areas covered by robotaxi service),支持企业从无人化道路测试逐步过渡到无人商业化试点,持续为公众带来自动驾驶出行服务体验升级。

年度弹幕 trending bullet comment of the year


“弹幕”是近几年兴起的一种新的评论形式,指视频播放时观众的实时评论像子弹一样在屏幕上穿梭(real-time comments from viewers fly across the screen like bullets while a video is playing),这样的“弹幕评论”在英语中一般用bullet comments表示,如果视频播放时弹幕评论很多,占据了整个屏幕,就形成了bullet screen(弹幕)。

The trending bullet comment of the year "Po Fang Le", or "this broke down my defenses" in literal translation, is a phrase used in games when a player's defense is torn down by special moves.




moved to tears by a movie line被影视动画中某句台词戳中泪点,

left emotionally vulnerable watching a food video when one is hungry


inspired by athelets competing at the Olympics


bidding farewell to the generation of people who used to be part of one's youth memory



在英语中,我们可以根据不同的语境用I was moved to tears, I'm overwhelmed,This really got me或者I'm shook来表达“破防了”。

B站2020年度弹幕是“爷青回”(My youth is making a comeback)。

B站2019年度弹幕是“AWSL”(“啊,我死了”的首字母缩写,I'm dying)。

年度词汇 word of the year

“NFT”当选《柯林斯词典》2021年度词汇。NFT是non-fungible token的缩写,中文翻译为“非同质化代币”,是记录数字资产所有权的唯一数字标识符。柯林斯表示,NFT在2021年的使用率增长了110000%。

NFT is an abbreviation for non-fungible token, which according to the dictionary is “a unique digital certificate, registered in a blockchain, that is used to record ownership of an asset such as an artwork or a collectible.”NFT是non-fungible token的缩写,据《柯林斯词典》解释,这个词指的是“在区块链中注册的唯一数字证书,用于记录艺术品或收藏品等资产的所有权。”


The word was inspired by Nasa’s mission to Mars, as data showed that users across the globe searched for the word online more than 243,000 times throughout the year.

该词的当选得益于美国宇航局的火星任务,数据显示,全球用户从年初至今对“毅力”一词的 *** 搜索量超过了24.3万次。

The dictionary found there was a surge in searches for the meaning of “perseverance” between 18 and 24 February, after Nasa’s Perseverance Rover landed on Mars.


"Perseverance” is defined in the Cambridge Dictionary as a “continued effort to do or achieve something, even when this is difficult or takes a long time”.



Words related to vaccines have spiked in frequency in 2021 due to Covid, with double-vaxxed, unvaxxed and anti-vaxxer all seeing a surge in use.由于新冠肺炎疫情,2021年与疫苗相关的词汇更加频繁出现,“接种过两剂疫苗的”、“未接种疫苗的”和“反对疫苗人士”这些词汇的使用频率骤增。

OED senior editor Fiona McPherson says vax was an obvious choice as it has made "the most striking impact".