行军篇翻译大概内容

《孙子兵法》是中国现存最早的兵书,也是世界上最早的军事著作,被誉为“兵学圣典”。共有六千字左右,一共十三篇。(1 始计篇;2 作战篇;3 谋攻篇;4 军形篇;5 兵势篇;6 虚实篇;7 军争篇;8 九变篇;9 行军篇;10 地形篇;11 九地篇;12 火攻篇;13 用间篇)

内容涵盖国家战略、军事战略、治军理念、战斗战术。

12 火攻篇The Attack by Fire

孙子曰:凡火攻有五:一曰火人,二曰火积,三曰火辎,四曰火库,五曰火队。行火必有因,烟火必素具。发火有时,起火有日。时者,天之燥也;日者,月在箕、壁、翼、轸也。凡此四宿者,风起之日也。

孙子说:火攻有五种目标:一是焚烧敌军的人马,二是焚烧敌军的粮草积聚,三是焚烧敌军的辎重,四是焚烧敌军的仓库,五是焚烧敌军的运输设施。实施火攻必须具备一定的条件,发火器材必须经常准备好。发火还要选择有利的时候,起火要选准有利的日期。所谓有利的时候,指的是天气干燥;所谓有利的日期,指月亮运行到“箕”、“壁”、“翼”、“轸”4个星宿的位置,凡是月亮运行到这4个星宿位置时,就是起风的日子。

Sun Tzu said: There are five ways of attacking with fire. The first is to burn soldiers in their camp; the second is to burn stores; the third is to burn baggage-trains; the fourth is to burn arsenals and magazines; the fifth is to hurl dropping fire amongst the enemy.

In order to carry out an attack with fire, we must have means available. The material for raising fire should always be kept in readiness.

There is a proper season for making attacks with fire, and special days for starting a conflagration.

The proper season is when the weather is very dry; the special days are those when the moon is in the constellations of the Sieve, the Wall, the Wing or the Cross-bar; for these four are all days of rising wind.

arsenal ['ɑrs(ə)nəl] 武器库;〈比喻〉(思想等的)武库;兵工厂;军械库;老城墙旁的军营区;

magazine [ˈmæɡəˌzin] 杂志;期刊;(电视,广播的)专题节目;军火库;

hurl [hɜrl] 猛扔;猛投;猛摔;大声说出(辱骂或斥责等);猛投;

conflagration [.kɑnflə'ɡreɪʃ(ə)n] 大火灾;爆燃;

凡火攻,必因五火之变而应之。火发于内,则早应之于外。火发兵静者,待而勿攻,极其火力,可从而从之,不可从而止。火可发于外,无待于内,以时发之。火发上风,无攻下风。昼风久,夜风止。凡军必知有五火之变,以数守之。

凡用火攻,必须根据上述五种火攻所造成的情况变化,适时地运用兵力加以策应。从敌人内部放火,就要及早派兵从外面策应。火已烧起,而敌军仍能保持镇静的,要观察等待,不要马上进攻,等火势烧到最旺的时候,视情况可以进攻就进攻,不可以进攻就停止。火也可以从外面放,那就不必等待内应,只要时机和条件成熟就可以放火。火发于上凤,不可从下风进攻。白天风刮久了,夜晚风就会停止。军队必须懂得五种火攻 *** 的变化运用,等候具备条件,然后实施火攻。

行军篇翻译大概内容  第1张

In attacking with fire, one should be prepared to meet five possible developments:

(1) When fire breaks out inside the enemy's camp, respond at once with an attack from without.

(2) If there is an outbreak of fire, but the enemy's soldiers remain quiet, bide your time and do not attack.

(3) When the force of the flames has reached its height, follow it up with an attack, if that is practicable; if not, stay where you are.

(4) If it is possible to make an assault with fire from without, do not wait for it to break out within, but deliver your attack at a favourable moment.

(5) When you start a fire, be to windward of it. Do not attack from the leeward.

行军篇翻译大概内容  第2张

A wind that rises in the daytime lasts long, but a night breeze soon falls.

In every army, the five developments connected with fire must be known, the movements of the stars calculated, and a watch kept for the proper days.

practicable ['præktɪkəb(ə)l] 可行的;行得通的;适用的;可实行的;切实可行;

leeward ['luərd] 下风;背风面;在背风面的;背风的;下风的;在下风;

故以火佐攻者明,以水佐攻者强。水可以绝,不可以夺。夫战胜攻取,而不修其功者凶,命曰费留。故曰:明主虑之,良将修之。非利不动,非得不用,非危不战。主不可以怒而兴师,将不可以愠而致战;合于利而动,不合于利而止。怒可以复喜,愠可以复悦;亡国不可以复存,死者不可以复生。故明君慎之,良将警之,此安国全军之道也。

用火来辅助进攻的,明显地容易取胜;用水来辅助进攻的,攻势可以加强。水可以断绝敌人的联系,却不能烧毁敌人的蓄积。凡打了胜仗,攻取了土地、城池,而不能够巩固胜利,是危险的,这就叫做“费留”。因此明智的国君一定要慎重地考虑这个问题,优秀的将帅必须认真处理这个问题。不是对国家有利,就不要采取军事行动,没有取胜的把握,就不要随便用兵,不到危急紧迫之时,就不要轻易开战。国君不可凭一时的恼怒而兴兵打仗,将帅不可凭一时的怨愤而与敌交战。符合国家利益就行动,不符合国家利益就停止。恼怒可以重新欢喜,怨愤可以重新高兴,国亡了就不能再存,人死了不能再活。所以明智的国君对战争问题一定要慎重,良好的将帅对战争问题一定要警惕,这是安定国家和保全军队的关键!

Hence those who use fire as an aid to the attack show intelligence; those who use water as an aid to the attack gain an accession of strength.

By means of water, an enemy may be intercepted, but not robbed of all his belongings.

Unhappy is the fate of one who tries to win his battles and succeed in his attacks without cultivating the spirit of enterprise; for the result is waste of time and general stagnation.

Hence the saying: The enlightened ruler lays his plans well ahead; the good general cultivates his resources.

Move not unless you see an advantage; use not your troops unless there is something to be gained; fight not unless the position is critical.

No ruler should put troops into the field merely to gratify his own spleen; no general should fight a battle simply out of pique.

If it is to your advantage, make a forward move; if not, stay where you are.

Anger may in time change to gladness; vexation may be succeeded by content.

But a kingdom that has once been destroyed can never come again into being; nor can the dead ever be brought back to life.

Hence the enlightened ruler is heedful, and the good general full of caution. This is the way to keep a country at peace and an army intact.

intercept [.ɪntər'sept] 拦截;【数】(在两点或两线间)截取;窃听;相交;【数】截距;侦听;中途阻止;被拦截的;

stagnation [stæɡ'neɪʃ(ə)n] 滞;滞止;萧条;迟钝;经济停滞;不景气;滞胀;

spleen [splin] 脾;愤怒;怒气;坏脾气;忧郁;

pique [pik] 怨恨;愤恨;恼怒;使愤恨;使恼怒;

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